What is PCOD?
Polycystic Ovarian Disease (PCOD), also known as Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a common illness among women of conceptive age. This affects 5% to 10% of women in the age group 12 years to 45 years. Woman’s hormones become unbalanced, causing menstrual period problems and make it tough for the women to conceive.
The main factors include no ovulation, irregular periods, acne, and hirsutism. If not treated, it can result in insulin-resistant diabetes, and high cholesterol leading to heart disease.
Know About Polycystic Ovarian Disease :
PCOS is an endocrine system disorder whereas, PCOD is a condition build-up by hormonal imbalance.
In girls with PCOS, the ovaries produce greater levels of androgen than usual, then this gets involved with egg development and discharge. Some of the eggs develop into cysts. Instead of releasing during ovulation, these cysts grow in the ovaries and get enlarged.
In PCOD, the hormonal imbalance leads to the gathering of mature eggs in the ovaries, as they cannot be released. These become cysts and some of the cysts further lead to more cysts and the cycle goes on.
PCOD and PCOS, are related with defective ovaries including symptoms like irregular periods, with PCOS leading to thinning of hair, and development of male hair pattern in PCOD. Both are caused due to hormonal imbalance which results in infertility. But PCOS is more serious than PCOD.
Causes of PCOD ?
Generally, the ovaries generate female sex hormones (estrogen) and a small number of male sex hormones (androgen). These help to manage in the development of eggs in the ovaries during each menstrual cycle.
PCOS is related to an imbalance in the sex hormones. In PCOS, they start producing more androgens which causes patients to stop ovulating, get pimples, and grow extra facial and body hair.
In polycystic ovary syndrome, the eggs in the follicles do not grow fully and are not released from the ovaries. Instead, they form very small cysts in the ovary, named polycystic ovaries.
PCOS seems to be genetic, so if other women in the family have PCOS, irregular periods, or diabetes, the chance of having it increases.
Common symptoms of PCOD and PCOS
- Acne breakouts
- Weight gain and difficulties in losing weight
- Surplus facial and body hair. Sometimes women get dense and darker facial hair, and more hair on the chest, belly, and back
- Reduction in the thickness of the hair (Hair fall)
- Irregular periods. Women suffering from PCOS have less than nine periods a year. Some women have no periods, whereas, others have heavy bleeding
- Women who have PCOS have a problem in getting pregnant (infertility)
PCOD and PCOS complications?
- High risk of endometrial cancer
- Infertility (early treatment of PCOD can help to cure infertility and increase the chances of healthy pregnancy)
- Obesity-related (BMI over 30 and waist circumference greater than 35) conditions, such as high blood pressure, heart disease, and diabetes
- Possible risk of breast cancer
Periods can happen irregular for other reasons during the first few years, it’s suggested to wait until after three years of irregular periods before consulting a doctor.